Bucharest – Little Paris

Bucharest – Little Paris

ABOUT

Bucharest is Romania’s capital and at the same time, the largest city industrial and commercial center of the country. Population of 1,944,367 inhabitants is that Bucharest is the sixth city in population in the European Union. In fact, however, Bucharest gather daily over three million people, and experts predict that over the next five years, the total will exceed four million. Add to this the fact that the settlements around the city, which will be part of future metropolitan area population totals about 430,000 inhabitants.

The first mention of locality appears in 1459. In 1859 became the capital of Romania. Since then undergoes constant change, being the art scene, culture and media. Between the two world wars, Bucharest elite elegant architecture and brought the nickname “Little Paris.” Currently, the capital has the same administrative level as a county and is divided into six sectors.

Bucharest is located in the southeast, from Ploiesti, Giurgiu north to south. Plain City is Vlasiei, which is part of the Romanian Plain. To the east lies Baragan in Găvanu Burdea Plain west and south is bordered by Plain Burnazului.

Plain Bucharest has altitudes between 100-115 m in the north-west and 50-60 m in the south-east in the meadow Dambovita. The city itself is between 58 m and 90 m altitude. Over 50% of its area is within the range of 80-100 m hypsometric and slope do not exceed the value of 2o. Fragmentation is more pronounced in the eastern half, where it reaches 1 to 1.5 km/km2.

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The relief is plain consists of a sequence of fields (inter-) and valleys (with terraces and meadows) in series from north to south:

Bucharest is situated on the banks of the Dambovita River, which flows into the Argeş, a tributary of the Danube. Several lakes lie along the river Colentina within the urban area, such as Lake Herăstrău, Floreasca Lake, Lake Tei and Lake Colentina. And in the center there is a lake in the Park Cişmigiu. This lake, formerly in the old medieval city pool is surrounded by Cismigiu Garden, inaugurated in 1847 after the plans of German architect Carl FW Meyer. In addition there Cişmigiu in Bucharest and other major parks: Herastrau Park (the Village Museum) and the Botanical Garden (the largest in Romania, comprising over 10,000 species of plants including exotic), Youth Park, Alexandru Ioan Cuza Park (also known Titan Park or Park as IOR), and many smaller parks and landscaped garden district municipalities.

The climate in Romania’s capital is specific, ie temperate-continental. There are specific seasons, winter, spring, summer and autumn. Winters are relatively mild in Bucharest with little snow and relatively high temperatures, while in recent years, summers are very hot, very hot (high temperature up to 45 degrees in the shade) and little precipitation. This causes temperature differences winter – summer will be up to 60 degrees.

The legend says that Bucharest was founded by a shepherd named Bucur. According to another variant most likely, Bucharest was founded by Mircea the Old at the end of the fourteenth century.

The settlement was documented on 20 September 1459 in an act of Vlad Tepes, ruler of Romanian, which strengthens an estate of nobles. Dambovita citadel, as it appears in the first years the city had a strategic role and will oversee the way he walked Targsor at Giurgiu, the last settlement being in Ottoman garrison. In short, states Bucharest, was elected on 14 October 1465 by Radu the Handsome as princely residence. In the years 1558 – 1559, Old Church is built at the Royal Court, built by Mr. Mircea Shepherd, which remained until today the oldest church in town preserved in its original form. In 1659, under the reign of George Ghica, Bucharest became the capital of Romanian, Turkish in order to have a capital in the plains and near the Danube, easier to control compared to Targoviste

In Bucharest, there are currently two functioning airports: Henri Coanda International Airport (formerly Otopeni) and Aurel Vlaicu International Airport (Baneasa original). Henri Coanda Airport is Romania’s largest serving five million passengers in 2009 and is the main center for the national operator TAROM. From there, daily flights depart and arrive from other cities in Romania and many other airports in Europe, North America, Asia and Africa. Aurel Vlaicu is used by low-cost airlines and charter planes serve.

ATTRACTION IN BUCHAREST

I.L.Caragiale National Theatre

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IL Caragiale Bucharest National Theatre performances is a public institution of national interest, repertoire institution with legal personality, subordinated to the Ministry of Culture.

The main objective is to promote cultural and artistic values, local and universal, nationally and internationally. The activity is organized on the principle of theater seasons, from theatrical season, usually on 15 September each year.

From its inception, the National Theatre was a cultural environment where he could create a national drama, where the audience was familiar with the newest and most exciting universal dramatic writings, where directing said first Romanian school and where they formed generations of great actors, drama and comedy.

Museum of History and Art

Muzeul de Istorie si Arta 01
Muzeul de Istorie si Arta 02

Museum of History and Art has its headquarters in Bucharest and Sutu Palace is located near “ground zero” of Romania on the Bratianu Blvd # 2, in particular the residence of the great Gregory Sutu C. Chamberlain, which was built in 1833.
Inauguration own – called the museum took place on 22 November 1931, in this first – minister Nicolae Iorga, the mayor and the Dem I. Dobrescu Corbescu former mayors and Emil Petrescu Gh.

Heritage museum in 1940 already contains 4330 pieces. Unfortunately summer exhibition of the museum the same year work was stopped because of improper conditions of the premises of the Calea Victoriei, 117.

The various moves of Headquarters House Stirbei Moruzi street no.34, no.47 Stirbei, Calea Victoriei nr.115, common Rosnic (Dolj county) during the war, sauce. Kiselev, Bd Lascar Catargiu limited largely museological and scientific work of the staff of specialists. In 1956, the museum received the JI office Bratianu Blvd Sutu Palace No.2.

Built between 1833 – 1835, led by architects Johann Veit and Schwinek Conrad, Sutu Palace stands out by neo-Gothic style, spatiality and inspired interior dome given by solving the central hall (1862) due to sculptor Karl Storck.

Bucharest Museum was reopened in its new local on 23 January 1959, the eve of the centenary of the Union principalities.
By aggregating History Museum with the Museum of Art (founded as part of the Municipal Museum in 1933) was founded in 1984 by Art and History Museum of Bucharest in December 1999 became the Museum of Bucharest.

The museum holds nearly 400,000 objects and preserves from archaeological research, donations and purchases made with funds provided each year by City Hall.

Polling evidence, heritage preservation and processing works in the building on Calea Victoriei 151, known as Cesianu house. Here there is the institution’s database of over 15,000 sheets of houses, streets, squares and monuments demolished during the communist period.

Personalities of historiography and research direction of the museum honored: Dr. George Severeanu archaeologist Dinu V. Rosetti, Professor, Univ. Dr. Panait I. Panait, Dr. Vasile Ionel Ionita Boroneanţ and current director.

Central University Library 

Biblioteca Centrala Universitara

Central University Library in Bucharest, short BCU library is particularly frequented by students, but also by other participants in academic life. It is located in the Palace of Charles University Foundation, former head of the Royal Foundation.

The building was built on the site bought by King Charles I and was designed by French architect Paul Gottereau. The construction was completed in 1893 and within two years of establishment, named Charles University Foundation, was equipped and furnished. The inauguration was made by King Charles I on 14 March 1895. In 1911, under the same architect, the building is expanded and placed into service on May 9, 1914.
By the Decree. 136, 12 July 1948, Foundation University Library University Library becomes CI Parhon Bucharest.

During the Revolution of 1989, the building was burned and lost the library consists of rare books. Have been destroyed over 500,000 books, rare maps, nearly 3,700 manuscripts belonging to important persons of culture, including Eminescu Maiorescu Caragiale Coşbuc, Blaga, Eliade.
Since April 1990, under the aegis of UNESCO, began the reconstruction and modernization of the library.
The building exterior was restored on 20 November 2001 and was officially reopened.

Romanian Peasant Museum

Muzeul Taranului Roman 01

Romanian Peasant Museum is one of the most diverse family of European museums Museum of Arts and Popular Traditions. Bucharest is located on Highway No.3 Kiselev, near Victory Square. Where the current museum building was built between 1912-1941, according to architectural plans Budeşti N. Ghica.

It furthers the Romanian Peasant Museum of Ethnography Museum, National Art, decorative arts and industrial set up on 1 October 1906. The museum was also called the Museum of Ethnography and National Art Museum in 1912 and later National Folk Art Museum of the Republic. In 1978, he joined the museum as the Museum Village Museum Village and Folk Art. The museum is sponsored by the Ministry of Culture.

Collection plates at the Romanian Peasant Museum
The museum has become known for its collections of 100,000 objects formed. Since its founding by Horia Bernea on 5 February 1990, operates in a neo-Romanian style building declared a historic monument. The curator brought in its special May 1996 European Museum of the Year Award given by the European Museum Forum. The building, inspired by neo-style illustration Brancovan tradition, ordered form type monastic enclosure was completed in 1941, taking the current appearance of architectural monument which is located Romanian Peasant Museum. Masonry red brick arches and fretted elements, pavilion reminiscent of ancient monasteries steeples, gives the building a true palace of art sumptuousness.

The museum has collections of ceramics, costumes, interior fabrics, wood, furniture, hardware, rugs. In the courtyard of the museum from Ion Mihalache Boulevard was mounted a wooden church, a historical monument of the eighteenth century, moved here in 1992.

Parliament Palace

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Parliament Palace in Bucharest, Romania (also known as House of the People before the revolution), measuring 270 m by 240 m, 86 m high and 92 m below ground. It has 12 levels and 8 ground surface. According to the Guinness Book of Records, Parliament Palace is the largest civilian administrative building in the world use the most expensive office building in the world and the heaviest building in the world, falling three times in the record books. Palace of the Parliament building is located in the central part of Bucharest (in May), the place that today is called Arsenal Hill, framed by Spring Street to the west and northwest, United Nations Avenue north of Liberty Avenue and Route 13 east September in the south. It is 10 minutes away from Unirii Square and 20 minutes from North Station (bus 123).

The hill on which Parliament House is today is largely a creation of nature, having an initial height of 18 m, but the Liberty Avenue side is artificially raised.
Parliament House Construction began in 1983, the fundamental stone settlement ceremony taking place on 25 June 1984.

The building has a surface of 330.000 m², enrolling in the “Guinness Book of Records” under “Administrative Building”, 2nd place in the world after the Pentagon, and in terms of volume, with 2.55 million m³ of his people, 3rd in the world after the missile assembly building at Cape Canaveral Space Florida after Quetzalcoatl pyramid in Mexico. For comparison we can mention that the building exceeds the 2% volume of the pyramid of Cheops in Egypt, and that some sources would characterize as a construction “Pharaoh” [3].

Beginning during the communist regime, (calling itself the “Golden Age” of Romania and violently removed by the Revolution of 1989), the so-called Project Bucharest was an ambitious project of Ceausescu began in 1978 as a replica of the city Pyongyang, North Korea’s capital. A systematic project there since the early ’30s (during the reign of Charles II) for the Union – Arsenal Hill.

After the earthquake of 1977 Nicolae Ceausescu ordered the “reconstruction” of Bucharest as a new town by itself. In the years 1978 to 1979 held a national competition for the reconstruction of Bucharest. The contest lasted almost four years and was won by Anca Petrescu, a young architect only 28 years old, who was appointed chief architect of this project exceptionally controversial.
The site itself began in 1980 with the demolition of more than 7 km ² of the old city center and the relocation of over 40,000 people in the area. Among the missing are counted monastery buildings Văcăreşti Brancovenesc Hospital, National Archives, etc. Republic Stadium. The works were carried out with forced labor conscripts, and the cost was minimized [4] [5].

The project of reconstruction of Bucharest, included a number of buildings such as Parliament House – House of the People, the Ministry of National Defense, Radio House, Marriott Hotel – Guest House, House of Romanian Academy, Spring Park and Boulevard Unirii-Victory of Socialism.
In 1989, building costs were estimated at U.S. $ 1,750,000,000, and in 2006 to 3 billion euros.

Building dimensions

* Length – 270 meters
* Width – 245 meters
* Height – 86 meters (over quota 0)
* 92 meters depth (below ground level)
* Built from the ground surface – 66 000 square meters

Resources used
To achieve this stately buildings were used:

* 1 million cubic meters of marble
* 5,500 tons of cement
* 7,000 tons of steel
* 20,000 tons of sand
* 1,000 tons of basalt
* 900,000 cubic meters of timber
* 3,500 tons of crystal
* 200,000 m³ glass
* 2,800 chandeliers
* 220,000 m² carpet
* 3500 meters of skin.

The building was attended by 200 architects and approximately 20,000 workers who worked in three shifts, 24 hours a day.

Herastrau Park

parcul herastrau

Herastrau Park was built in 1936 on the shores of Lake Herăstrău (74 hectares) and is the largest park in Bucharest.

Lake in the center of the park is part of the chain of river lakes Colentina. It is used for sports and recreational sailing. The shores of the lake is dammed to prevent flooding. Herastrau occupying an area of about 110 ha. While it was considered that the park surrounding the lake can be arranged in two areas: one for quiet recreation and culture (the land where the old park) and an area for active leisure, sport and entertainment.

Park today counts among its attractions, a summer theater, exhibition halls, clubs and water sports, cafes and restaurants, a hotel and many other facilities. The ideal place where you can practice almost any kind of sport and has areas for recreation and culture and sporting and entertainment areas.

Free  Press House

Casa Presei Libere 01
Casa Presei Libere 02

Free Press House, originally designed as “Exploring Complex, was built in five years (1952-1957) (between 1949 and 1954, was project leader prof. Emeritus Panaite Mazilu Eng), is intended for publication media State and especially the newspaper spark, “organ” of the Romanian Workers’ Party Central Committee. The antenna on this building has argued for a while, since 1956, Romanian TV broadcaster.

After 1989, “Exploring the house is known as the Free Press.

Former Polygraph Combine “” Exploring “and it became after 1989, the printing Autonomous” Coresi “In turn, became director in February 1999 in the printing Coresi National Company – SA The building is a set of four sides that are home to a large patio, plus two assemblies in the form of U, which are related to the body of the present assemblies that were left open to later build a home theater and a trade union . Because construction costs were very high, and home theater unions have never been higher.

Part of the funds collected through public subscription to “voluntarily” giving them the employees salary as vouchers, which justified the lack of money. In the picture a ticket worth 20 lei, but there were also 30 lei and 100 lei.
“Exploring the manufacturer was the first work that introduced the calculation of resistance to a possible earthquake, taking into account some old rules, when Mussolini’s Italian. These rules have proved to be better even than in 1963 because they were simpler and more emphasis was placed on the intensity of the earthquake, and not on how building

The building was designed to be functional and have done several rooms, and office space.
The architecture was inspired by the tall buildings in Moscow – University, Leningraskaia Gastelniţa (Hotel Leningrad). Another building that had the same source of inspiration is the Palace of Culture in Warsaw.

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